Maturita - ústna časť

Science and technology


Mankind has come a long way during its existence. In pre-historic times, people´s lives and their needs were simple – everything needed for life was at hand. People hunted for food, and made tools from stones and simple clothes to protect them from the cold. The only tool they had was the human hand, and it was an excellent tool.

Step by step, people started changing the world, trying to make their lives easier and more comfortable. They invented the wheel, started transporting goods and traded precious materials. They learnt how to use water for energy and build watermills. Later, windmills were built to use wind energy. Important discoveries, exploration and inventions came in the 15th and 16th centuries- the discovery and exploration by Europeans of new continents such as America, Asia, Africa, the invention of printing press, and developments in the true sciences like astronomy, philosophy, medicine and biology. All this resulted in new thinking.

Mankind started down a road of progress that they could not get off. The 18th and 19th centuries witnessed the industrial revolution that completely changed the world. It brought important inventions: the steam engine, the electric light bulb, the electric motor, and the first petrol-driven car. Thanks to these inventions, small manufacturing businesses changed into large factories and hand-made goods were replaced by machine-made products. Mass production started and all sorts of goods became cheaper and more available to more people. Traditional materials (wood, stone, horns, steel, silver, gold, copper) were still used, but as technologies improved new and cheaper materials were introduced, e.g. rubber, glass paper and later plastics.

The development of science and technology went on rapidly and the 20th century brought such inventions as the airplane, the television, the computer, the mobile phone, the Internet and the videophone. Research in medicine brought new drug and vaccines that prolong people´s lives, research in chemistry brought pesticides and fertilizers that enable is to plant more crops for the constantly growing population of Earth.

 At the beginning of the 3rd millennium, science and technology have a deep influence on our lives. They influence communication; we can talk to our friends and relatives in any part of the world using phones, satellites or computers. We can take part in online discussions, teleconferences and even do our shopping from home by mail order. These are the advantages of new technologies. The problem, however, is that we spend less time with our families and friends. We communicate with a computer, not with real people.

 New technologies have also made some transactions easier. Sometimes, it´s as if we don´t even need paper money or coins. Using smart cards like credit cards or phone cards is simple and comfortable and you can easily get used to it. Many people don´t like these cards because they think confidential information can get to the wrong people and be misused.

 In the past few decades, we´ve witnessed a rapid development of new technologies in medicine. New medical equipment, like the lasers used in surgery or microsurgery, is more efficient and shortens the amount of time a person has to spend in hospital after having an operation.

 The food industry has also been influenced by scientific and technological advances. Genetic engineering is used to produce more and better grains, fruits and vegetables. People used to think it was a good idea, but today public opinion has changed and some people refuse to buy genetically modified food, as they are afraid of its side effects.     

Úlohy na samoštúdium

Extra otázky:

1. How much of a part does personality play in becoming a hero?
2. When you hear the word hero what is the first thing that comes to your mind? 
3. What courageous and selfless acts have turned ordinary people into heroes? 
4. Do you agree with the statement: “heroes are made, not born”? 
5. How much of a role does special training to save lives play in becoming a hero? 
6. How would you describe yourself in four words? 
7. Do you consider yourself a hero? 
8. What´s the last thing you´ve done that´s worth remembering? 
9. Whose life have you had the greatest impact on? 
10. Who do you look up to? 


You have changed your attitude to your mom because two years ago something happened to her and since that time she has changed a lot. She is always bad-tempered, does not understand you at all. She has become very suspicious and sometimes, because of her behavior, you feel ashamed. You understand you owe her a lot – that´s why you do not have a good feeling from your behavior. You have started to ignore her and talk back.  

Your friend does not behave very well to his mom. You decided to talk openly about her role in his life. You have heard that she really made sacrificed when he was a little child and spend days and nights at his bed. Your friend is talking very negatively about his mom. Persuade him that parents are real heroes. 


You were walking along the street when you saw a man attacking a young girl. You do tae kwon do and are able to protect yourself but have never tried to protect anybody else. What would you do? Who do you consider a real hero?


What are advantages and disadvantages of using each type of phones?


1. Obrázky -
2. Bérešová J. a kol. (2008) Nová maturita z angličtiny - Vyššia úroveň B2
3. Kálaziová I. (2019) Úspešná maturita - Anglický jazyk - úroveň B2
4. Bérešová J. (2005) Nová maturita - Anglický jazyk - Interná časť 


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