Maturita - ústna časť

Humanity and society

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Some of the definitions say that community is a group of people living in one place, district or country, considered as a whole, or it is a group of people of the same religion, race, occupation, etc., or with shared interests. A positive feature of community is when it establishes just conditions for sharing, having things in common and being alike in some way. A very negative feature of community is when community dictates what its members must do and how to do it because it can manipulate its members. Human beings have faced many forms of manipulation in their history, such as Fascism, Stalinism but also terrorism which threatens the modern world these days, Innocent people are killed and threatened by those who misuse fanatism and do not think about the issues with common sense. These people are usually strong individuals who suppress those who oppose them by employing the most drastic methods to make others frightened. Terrorists threaten to blow up famous places or a hijacked airliner - places full of people, to force the government to fulfill their demands. Not only are human beings threatened by natural disasters, they are threatened by their own species. Animals kill their mates in order to survive, human beings kill for pleasure, or because they are upset, bored or discontent. Those who are expected to behave the best because they are gifted with brains, often behave worse than animals that use their instincts.  

The influence of a society can be seen in everyday life. At present, people who are skinny and good-looking are on the front pages of popular magazines and so influence perceptions of who is considered successful and admired by the others. If such an influence is too strong it can cause damage in the dorm of bulimia, anorexia, extreme forms of cosmetic plastic surgery. A good society consists of people who respect each other whoever they are, whatever they look like, whatever they believe in, wherever they were born.

Rules and regulations

 Although each community states its duties and rights, in real life the members do not often behave according to them. This is also true of countries. Many countries have adopted international conventions and included the basic rights into their own constitutions or penal codes but in reality these tights are not upheld.

 Countries in transformation such as former socialist countries can be proud of their constitutions and penal codes but women are still not paid as well as men. They have two jobs: the official one and the household, they are expected to obey their husbands and are many times discriminated against when applying for a good job. People behave violently in everyday life: scratching their neighbor’s car because of jealousy, painting graffiti or ride words for their own benefit or always putting their own interests first. Many times they do not know their duties and rights. Their duty is to pick up their dog´s excrement; their duty is not to damage someone´s health in enclosed areas and to keep a distance at the bus stops having lit a cigarette. Small offences like pushing in front of people queuing at the bus stop, or not allowing pedestrians to cross the street at the zebra crossing are everyday real life situations.

 Many people do not respect the rights of others. They park their cars in front of another person´s garage and if the owner calls the police they will later damage some of the owner´s property. If you call the police that somebody has not picked up his dog´s excrements, the police will be surprised and the passers-by will shake their heads in astonishment.



Úlohy na samoštúdium

Extra otázky:

1. How do changes in societies affect the family life?
2. How do changes in society affect family structure? 
3. Why is helping people important? 
4. What can society do to help people in need 
5. How can people contribute to charities? 
6. Make a list of rules which you think should never be broken. 
7. Make a list of the duties of individuals and those of a community.  
8. What annoys you most in our society? 
9. Describe your ideal model of society. 
10. Give pros and cons of communal living.  

Role-play:

Student
A friend of your likes writing graffiti on newly decorated walls. You know that it is a criminal offence and you are scared that your friend will be punished/ prosecuted for that. Try to persuade him/her not to do it.  

Teacher
A friend of yours tries to persuade you not to write graffiti on walls in your city. You consider it a living art form and try to explain him/ her that you want to decorate walls which seem ugly to you.  

Simulation:

A friend of yours has seen a person shoplifting in a big supermarket. The person was his neighbor. He asks you what you would do if you were him because he feels that somebody could suspect him because he might be recognized on the security cameras. 

Pictures:

Look at the pictures. Express your opinions and feelings about pictures:

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Zdroje:
1. Obrázky - www.google.com
2. Bérešová J. a kol. (2008) Nová maturita z angličtiny - Vyššia úroveň B2
3. Kálaziová I. (2019) Úspešná maturita - Anglický jazyk - úroveň B2
4. Bérešová J. (2005) Nová maturita - Anglický jazyk - Interná časť 

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