Maturita - ústna časť

Humanity and nature


Humanity and nature have co-existed together for many years. Nature and its ecosystem have slower development than humanity and it is becoming more visible every day. Mankind creates technological advancements that are not in balance with the nature; hence we can see much damage and threats imposed by human activities. Before I even begin with the topic of environment, let us take a step back and first look at nature and humanity separately.

Nature consists of fauna and flora, both of which undergo evolution and development, although slow, according to the environment there are in. Flora, also known as plants, flowers, trees, create the beautiful environment that surrounds us everywhere and fauna lives in this environment, also known as animals. It is different depending on the climate. Near the equator we have rainforests due to high temperature and humidity. They have an amazing biodiversity. There are thousands of species of plants and animals, some of which are monkeys, gorillas, sloths, lizards, insect etc. When we go further, we discover savannahs. If you saw the Lion King, you know what animals live there – zebra, giraffe, lion, rhino, cheetah etc. After we cross savannah, we get to deserts and semi-deserts which are known for long hot days without any water around. People don´t live there because of lack of resources it provides, but animals like scorpions feel great there. Plants which can survive such conditions are for instance cacti, which can hold on to water for a long time. When there is rain in the desert, it blooms. As we reach the end of deserts we get to climate and conditions which are better known to us. Temperate forests and grasslands are our home. Forests contain deciduous and coniferous trees, in which bears, deer, boars and other animals live. Scandinavia, Canada and Russia contain also taiga and tundra which lead us to arctic areas where nothing grows, but we can see polar bears and penguins there.

Humanity populated the Earth according to the condition described above. At the beginning when people did not have technological advancements, they needed to rely on resources provided by nature. Therefore, cities were built near water sources. People started hunting for food and gathering crops. The society developed and trades were born. The knowledge was given from generation to generation until we created technology we have nowadays. When it comes to population of the world now, there are certainly areas which are uninhabited like mountains and deserts, but there are also areas which are overpopulated, such as the east coast of China or north of India. The country with the highest density is Singapore. Since travelling is popular, people started to live in different countries than they were born in. The mix of cultures can be seen everywhere. There are different theories concerning this. One of them is the theory of a melting pot. It says that the cultures should mix together and create a new one, for example in cities like New York. However, we can still find indigenous people here and there. Africa still has its tribes which are untouched by civilization, also tribes on Amazon River. Both of these societies live in balance with nature. This cannot be said about us, which leads us to the topic of environment.

People want to progress. They see grand thing for themselves in the future, but what we are forgetting about is that we are placed on our Earth and we cannot destroy it, otherwise, we will need to move. However, I feel that these days, everything is about money and wealth. Yes, we have amazing machines that can help save lives and we have cars and planes that help us to see the world, but we are doing everything so excessively that it damages our environment. The hot topic is global warming. Due to our production and use of the technology, we are changing the climate of the Earth. The gasses created are causing green-house effect. Of course, it is important to remember that is it not solely caused by our cars or planes but also by farming. There is a high demand for many products, but we do not use all of them and the consumerism is one of the reasons why we talk about these threats. People try to preserve nature by creating national parks. Strict rules need to be followed but those are broken as well. For example poachers, they kill endangered animals just to sell their parts so that they would earn fortune. There are other natural disasters of a higher degree that can cause many deaths. Over the last few years, the number of these increased. We heard about tsunamis, earthquakes, tornados, hurricanes and floods….

Úlohy na samoštúdium

Extra otázky:

1. What effects can the environment have on health?
2. How do protected areas contribute to human health? 
3. Why should environmental education be integrated into the school curriculum? 
4. Which activities can be incorporated in outdoor environmental education? 
5. How do farming pesticides affect the ecosystem? 
6. Give some ideas of what kind of life on Earth you expect in the future.  
7. What do you think about the protests of environmental activists? 
8. Talk about the films which presuppose the destruction of life as we know it on our planet like “Interstellar”, “The plane of Apes”, “Wall-E”. 
9. What can we do in our everyday life to protect our environment? 


You really worry about the environment and reading the statistics you feel you need to do something. Persuade your friend to join a green organization with you giving reasons why and what you can do to save our world.  

A friend of yours is interested in joining a green organization. He/she wants you to do the same. You are not interested in environmental issues and are quire skeptical about your contribution to save our world. Try to explain to him/her that it is reasonable to leave this matters to professionals.  


Your friend never throws anything away. You live together and your kitchen is full of old newspapers, empty bottles, plastic containers and old paper bags. He/she says they will come in useful one day. What would you do?


Look at the pictures. Compare and contrast them.


1. Obrázky -
2. Bérešová J. a kol. (2008) Nová maturita z angličtiny - Vyššia úroveň B2
3. Kálaziová I. (2019) Úspešná maturita - Anglický jazyk - úroveň B2
4. Bérešová J. (2005) Nová maturita - Anglický jazyk - Interná časť 


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